Summary

The blog offers a detailed overview of renowned curriculum development models that are instrumental in shaping the design and execution of educational programs. It emphasizes the principal characteristics, advantages, and drawbacks of models introduced by educational theorists.

The curriculum is a fundamental aspect that guides formal learning experiences. It is conceptualized to suit the educational objectives and philosophy of the learning institution for which it is intended. Curriculum development models serve as a guide for two important processes involved in curriculum creation: design and development.

Table of Contents:

Broadly defined, curriculum design refers to a course’s overall structure or blueprint. Meanwhile, curriculum development is a step-by-step procedure that involves planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving course materials and teaching strategies to produce better educational outcomes.

As an educator, being aware of the different curriculum development models will enable you to make informed decisions and chalk out an effective learning plan for your institution.

So, let’s dive in!

Five Types of Curriculum Design Models

Curriculum Design Models

There are several models for developing a curriculum. Here are a few popular ones:

1. Tyler’s Model of Curriculum Development

Tyler’s Model was developed by American educator Ralph W. Tyler in 1949. It is also known as the objective Model and is among the most widely used curriculum design models. It is based on the notion that the objective of education is to develop learning that is meaningful and useful to learners.

Tyler’s Model lays importance on the planning phase. At the same time, it focuses on maintaining consistency among objectives, outcomes, and educational experiences. It is a linear model that considers four fundamental aspects of developing a curriculum, including:

  • The purpose or objective of education to be achieved
  • The learning experience required to attain the defined objective
  • Organizing educational activities for effective learning experiences
  • Assessing the Learning experiences

The strength of this Model lies in its concise structure and systematic approach. At the same time, it allows for flexibility. Educators can easily apply this Model to develop curriculum for any level of education and subject area.

Since it gives importance to the evaluation of the curriculum, Tyler’s Model enables educators to assess the effectiveness of their educational plans and introduce required changes.

However, it has a few shortcomings. It does not give much importance to social learning. Its specific learning objectives don’t address critical thinking or emotional development. As such, this Model may not meet the diverse requirements of students.   

2. Taba’s Model of Curriculum Development

Taba’s Model emphasizes the planning of instructional strategies. Also known as the interactive Model, it was designed in 1962 by Hilda Taba, an Estonian-American curriculum theorist, reformer, and teacher. 

It follows a Grassroots or Down-Top approach and promotes a major role for teachers. The Model consists of seven stages of the learning and teaching system, which are mutually interactive.

They are as follows:

  • Diagnosis of learners’ needs
  • Formulation of objectives
  • Selection of the content
  • Organization of the content
  • Selection of learning experiences
  • Organization of learning activities
  • Evaluation

This Model promotes open-ended questions rather than focusing on right or wrong responses. One of the major benefits is that it offers scope to explore a concept at a deeper level using critical thinking skills.

Hurix Mini-Book:
The Paradigm Shift in Higher Education with Curriculum Development

 

3. John Goodlad’s Model of Curriculum Development

A Canadian theorist and educational researcher, John Goodlad, conceptualized Goodlad’s Model. It is a distinctive curriculum based upon the core belief that the driving force of educational systems should be values or goals. Goodlad considered values as data sources, contrasting Tyler’s consideration of values as a screen.

In his curriculum development model, Goodlad focuses on four data sources, which are as follows:

  • Values
  • Funded knowledge
  • Conventional wisdom
  • The learner’s needs and interests

This varies from Tyler’s Model in several aspects. One of the major differences is that Goodlad’s Model recognizes scientific knowledge that stems from research. When it comes to data sources, the Model depends on explicit value statements. This Model proposes continuous evaluation at all stages of the curriculum development process. 

Also Read: Curriculum Design: How To Develop A Successful Curriculum

4. Wheeler’s Model of Curriculum Development

Wheeler’s Model is cyclic. It was devised by D. K. Wheeler, a British educator and researcher. This Model uses a systematic and structured process to design and implement a curriculum.

It aims to help educators create and implement a dynamic curriculum that is relevant, effective, and efficient. Wheeler’s Model comprises five phases of curriculum development, which are as follows:

  • Selection of aims, goals, and objectives
  • Selection of learning experiences
  • Selection of content or subject matter
  • Organization and integration of learning experiences and content
  • Evaluation and revision of curriculum

Wheeler developed this Model to address the shortcomings of Tyler’s concept of curriculum development. Since Tyler’s Model is linear and basic, it overlooks the relationship between different curriculum elements. In response to it, Wheeler proposed this cyclic Model.

It underlines the interconnectedness of the various curriculum aspects. This Model enables curriculum designers to begin working on it at any stage. It also focuses on situational analysis. However, this Model is time-consuming and may be difficult to implement.     

5. Kerr’s Model of Curriculum Development

Kerr’s Model of curriculum development was proposed by John Kerr, a British curriculum specialist. Several features resemble those in Tyler’s and Wheeler’s Models. But the difference lies in the emphasis on the interrelatedness of the various components that are a part of this Model. This interrelatedness can be either direct or indirect and is achieved by the flow of the data between the components.  

John Kerr proposed four components for his curriculum development model:

Kerr’s Model recommends sorting objectives as cognitive, psychomotor, and effective. It also underlines that knowledge needs to be organized, integrated, sequenced, and reinforced.

This Model pays attention to the needs and interests of students, the influence of social conditions and school, and the maturity of the learners. However, one drawback is that it doesn’t focus on teacher input.

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The Bottom Line

Curriculum development is an integral part of every education program, whether offered online or offline. But designing and implementing a curriculum is not easy, especially when it comes to online learning. This is where digital curriculum providers can be of great help.

Hurix Digital is one of the most reliable K12 curriculum development companies that designs customized curricula based on client requirements. The team of experts at Hurix is adept at developing an eLearning curriculum and ensuring success for your educational programs.

Contact our expert team for all kinds of services related to digital curriculum development.

Also Read – What is Curriculum Development: Overview, Best Practices, and Future Trends

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. Why are curriculum development models important?

A. Curriculum development models provide structure, consistency, and a systematic approach to curriculum planning, ensuring that educational objectives, content, and instructional strategies align with desired outcomes.

2. How do educators choose the most suitable curriculum development model for their needs?

A. Educators should consider factors such as educational goals, student needs, instructional approaches, and available resources when selecting a curriculum development model. It is also important to adapt and customize models to fit specific contexts and learner characteristics.

3. Can curriculum development models be used in various educational settings?

A. Yes, curriculum development models can be applied in different educational settings, including K-12 schools, colleges, universities, and vocational training institutions.

4. How can curriculum development models be tailored to specific subject areas?

A. Educators can customize curriculum development models by incorporating subject-specific content, skills, and pedagogical approaches that are relevant to the discipline being taught.

5. How can curriculum development models support educational innovation and improvement?

A. Curriculum development models provide a structured framework for incorporating innovative teaching practices, new technologies, and emerging educational trends into the curriculum to enhance learning experiences.

6. Do curriculum development models evolve over time?

A. Yes, curriculum development models evolve to reflect changes in educational theory, advancements in research, societal needs, and the evolving nature of knowledge and skills required for success.